In the scineces, a primary source is the original publication of new data, research or theories. Examples include: experimental studies, clinical trials, opinion surveys
Typically, primary research articles are published in peer-reviewed journal articles with standardized sections, including
Need help deciding if an article is published in a peer-reviewed journal? Use this table of characteristics to help you decide.
Backward Citation Tracking: Looking at an article's works cited list provides a snapshot of the research that was available at the time of publication and will provide you with a wealth of related sources.
Forward Citation Tracking: Looking to see if a source has been cited by others will help you determine its importance and will identify other, more current sources. Look for "times cited" or "cited by" in tools such as Biological Abstracts and Google Scholar.
Below is a selection of subject databases you can search individually.